Safe Transaction Service

Safe Transaction Service

Safe Transaction Service keeps track of transactions sent via Safe contracts. It indexes these transactions using events (L2 chains) and tracing (L1 chains) mechanisms.

Key Features:

  • Blockchain indexing: Executed transactions, configuration changes, ERC-20/721 transfers, and onchain confirmations are automatically indexed from the blockchain.
  • Offchain transaction signatures: Transactions can be sent to the service, enabling offchain signature collection. This feature helps inform owners about pending transactions awaiting confirmation for execution.
  • Offchain messages: The service can collect offchain signatures to confirm messages following EIP-1271 (opens in a new tab).
  • Transactions decode: The service keeps getting source and ABIs from contracts that interact with Safe to decode these interactions.

Technology stack overview

Safe Transaction Service is a Django (opens in a new tab) app written in Python with the following architecture:

Transaction Service architecture

Blockchain indexing

Safe Transaction Service can index automatically executed transactions, configuration changes, ERC-20/721 transfers, and onchain confirmations. The indexer is running on worker-indexer by different periodic tasks (opens in a new tab).

ERC-20 and ERC-721 are indexed using eth_getLogs (opens in a new tab) filtered by the Transfer topic keccak('Transfer(address,address,uint256)').

Safe creation, executed transactions, configuration changes, and onchain confirmations are indexed differently depending on whether the chain is L1 or L2.

For L1 chains, the indexer calls tracing methods. For the oldest blocks, trace_filter (opens in a new tab) is used filtering by singleton address of Safe contracts, and for the latest blocks trace_block (opens in a new tab) is used, as trace_filter takes longer to return updated information. trace_block will be used if the block depth is lower than ETH_INTERNAL_TXS_NUMBER_TRACE_BLOCKS. The environment variables indexing uses are defined here (opens in a new tab).

For L2 chains, the indexing is by events with the eth_getLogs (opens in a new tab) method with the corresponding topics.

From Safe creation, the Transaction Service stores each contract change on the SafeStatus model as nonce, owners, etc. The latest and current status of a Safe is stored as SafeLastStatus for easy database access and optimization.

The following endpoints show the current indexing status of the Safe Transaction Service:

  • /v1/about/indexing/

Response example:

{
  "currentBlockNumber": 9773327, // Last block on blockchain
  "erc20BlockNumber": 9773326,   // Last block indexed for erc20/721 events
  "erc20Synced": true,
  "masterCopiesBlockNumber": 9773327, // Last block indexed for executed transactions, ether transfers, configuration changes, etc.
  "masterCopiesSynced": true,
  "synced": true
}

Reorgs handling

Every block is marked as not confirmed during indexing unless it has some depth (configured via the ETH_REORG_BLOCKS environment variable). Unconfirmed blocks are checked periodically to see if the blockchain blockHash for that number changed before it reaches the desired number of confirmations. If that's the case, all blocks from that block and related transactions are deleted, and indexing is restarted to the last confirmed block.

Note: No offchain signatures, transactions, or messages are lost in this process. Only onchain data is removed.

Offchain transaction signatures

Safe Transaction Service can collect offchain transaction signatures, allowing the owners to share their signatures to reach the required threshold before executing a transaction and spending less gas than onchain approvals.

The following endpoints let us propose a transaction and collect every confirmation (offchain signatures):

  • POST /v1/safes/{address}/multisig-transactions/: Creates a new transaction. Requires at least one signature.
  • POST /v1/multisig-transactions/{safe_tx_hash}/confirmations/: Adds a new confirmation. Needs safe_tx_hash.
  • GET /v1/multisig-transactions/{safe_tx_hash}/: Returns all the multisig transaction information.
  • GET /v1/multisig-transactions/{safe_tx_hash}/confirmations/: Returns the list of all confirmations to a multisig transaction.

The following sequence diagram shows a use case for a Safe shared by Alice and Bob where at least one confirmation for each one is required:

What's the safe_tx_hash?

safe_tx_hash is the unique identifier for a Safe transaction and is calculated using the EIP-712 (opens in a new tab) standard:
keccak256(0x19 || 0x1 || domainSeparator || safeTxHashStruct)
where safeTxHashStruct is the hashStruct of a Safe transaction.

The following example shows how to get a safe_tx_hash with safe-eth-py (opens in a new tab)

from gnosis.safe.safe_tx import SafeTx
from gnosis.eth.ethereum_client import EthereumClient
eth_client = EthereumClient("https://sepolia.gateway.tenderly.co")
safe_tx = SafeTx(eth_client, "0x4127839cdf4F73d9fC9a2C2861d8d1799e9DF40C", "0xc6b82bA149CFA113f8f48d5E3b1F78e933e16DfD",10000000000000000,"",0,0,0,0,"0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000","0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000", safe_nonce=206)
print(safe_tx.safe_tx_hash.hex())

Output

0x34ae46cf7d884309a438a7e9a3161fa05dfc5068681ac3877a947971af845a18

Offchain messages

Safe Transaction Service can collect the necessary offchain signatures to confirm a message using EIP-1271 (opens in a new tab).
The message can be a string (EIP-191 is used to get the hash) or an object EIP-712.

Messages endpoints

  • GET /v1/safes/{address}/messages/: Returns the messages created for the given Safe address.
  • POST /v1/safes/{address}/messages/: Creates a message with at least one signature.
  • GET /v1/messages/{message_hash}/: Returns a message for a given message hash.
  • POST /v1/messages/{message_hash}/signatures/: Adds another signature to the message with the given message hash.

The following sequence diagram shows a use case for a Safe shared by Alice and Bob where at least one signature for each one is required to confirm a message fully:

Message string example
Python
safe-eth-py is required for this example.

from gnosis.eth.ethereum_client import EthereumClient
from gnosis.safe.safe import Safe 
from eth_account.messages import defunct_hash_message
from eth_account import Account
import requests
 
alice = Account.from_key("Alice_key")
 
# Message that we want to confirm 
message = "Hello SafeMessages"
# Hash EIP-191
message_hash = defunct_hash_message(text=message)
# get message hash from safe
eth_client = EthereumClient("https://sepolia.gateway.tenderly.co")
safe_address = "TheAliceAndBobSafeAddress"
safe = Safe(safe_address, eth_client)
safe_message_hash = safe.get_message_hash(message_hash)
 
# Alice is going to create the message on safe Transaction Service
# First sign the safe_message_hash
signature_alice = alice.signHash(safe_message_hash)
 
# Create the request
body = {
    "message": message,
    "safeAppId": 0,
    "signature": signature_alice.signature.hex()
}
requests.post(f'https://safe-transaction-sepolia.safe.global/api/v1/safes/{safe_address}/messages/',json=body)
 
# Message was created, let's request by message hash
response =  requests.get(f'https://safe-transaction-sepolia.safe.global/api/v1/messages/{safe_message_hash.hex()}/')
print(response.json())
 
# Adding Bob confirmation
bob = Account.from_key("Bob_key")
signature_bob = bob.signHash(safe_message_hash)
 
# Create the request
body = {
    "signature": signature_bob.signature.hex()
}
requests.post(f'https://safe-transaction-sepolia.safe.global/api/v1/messages/{safe_message_hash.hex()}/signatures/',json=body)
 

Transaction decoder

The Safe Transaction Service can decode contract interactions. To achieve it, the service periodically gets source and ABIs from different sources like Sourcify, Etherscan, and Blockscout using the safe-eth-py library.

The detection of contract interactions is done in a periodic task executed every hour for multisig-transaction and module-transactions or every six hours for multisend-transactions on worker-contracts-tokens. For every new contract, the service tries to download the source, and the ABI requests it first to Sourcify, then Etherscan, and as a last chance, Blockscout. It's important to know that not all these data sources are supported or configured for every network on safe-eth-py.
Supported and configured networks on safe-eth-py:

Transaction decoder endpoint

  • POST /v1/data-decoder/ decode a transaction data passed on body for a to contract address.

Example transaction decoder

curl -X 'POST' \
  'https://safe-transaction-sepolia.safe.global/api/v1/data-decoder/' \
  -H 'accept: application/json' \
  -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
  -H 'X-CSRFToken: Gx1aRa8kIJGIAfReLAWwr9Q6dHv22dFt7VprdipLryHcxpfhk9aV0UDAhNz8gGYz' \
  -d '{
  "data": "0x095ea7b3000000000000000000000000e6fc577e87f7c977c4393300417dcc592d90acf8ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff",
  "to": "0x4127839cdf4F73d9fC9a2C2861d8d1799e9DF40C"
}'

Output:

{
  "method": "approve",
  "parameters": [
    {
      "name": "spender",
      "type": "address",
      "value": "0xe6fC577E87F7c977c4393300417dCC592D90acF8"
    },
    {
      "name": "value",
      "type": "uint256",
      "value": "115792089237316195423570985008687907853269984665640564039457584007913129639935"
    }
  ]
}

This decoded data is also included as dataDecoded in GET of multisig-transactions, module-transactions and all-transactions endpoints.