Safe Signatures

This guide shows how Safe signatures work and how to generate them using the Protocol Kit.


Safe accounts can be configured with different threshold values and types of owners. Safe owners can be any Ethereum address, such as:

  • Externally-owned accounts (EOAs). They generate an ECDSA signature to approve Safe transactions.
  • Smart accounts that implement the EIP-1271 (opens in a new tab) for signature validation, like Safe does. They use a different signature algorithm depending on the implementation of the smart account.

In the following guides, there are different accounts involved that will be used as an example:

WhoDescriptionAddress for this example
safe3_43/4 Safe (3 signatures required out of 4 owners)0xb3b3862D8e38a1E965eb350B09f2167B2371D652
owner1EOA and owner of safe3_40x90F8bf6A479f320ead074411a4B0e7944Ea8c9C1
owner2EOA and owner of safe3_40xFFcf8FDEE72ac11b5c542428B35EEF5769C409f0
safe1_11/1 Safe and owner of safe3_40x215033cdE0619D60B7352348F4598316Cc39bC6E
owner3EOA and owner of safe1_10x22d491Bde2303f2f43325b2108D26f1eAbA1e32b
safe2_32/3 Safe and owner of safe3_40xf75D61D6C27a7CC5788E633c1FC130f0F4a62D33
owner4EOA and owner of safe2_30xE11BA2b4D45Eaed5996Cd0823791E0C93114882d
owner5EOA and owner of safe2_30xd03ea8624C8C5987235048901fB614fDcA89b117

Each EOA owner described above is bound to an EthAdapter instance that should also be initialized.



Transaction signatures

  • The Transaction signatures guide explains how transactions are signed by Safe owners using the Protocol Kit.

Message signatures

  • Using the Protocol Kit, the Message signatures guide explains how to generate and sign messages, including plain string messages and EIP-712 JSON messages.

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